One Person Company in India: A Comprehensive Guide for Entrepreneurs

Are you an aspiring entrepreneur in India looking to start your own venture? If so, you may have heard about the concept of a One Person Company (OPC). This unique business structure has gained popularity in recent years, offering a host of benefits to solo entrepreneurs looking to establish their presence in the market. In this comprehensive guide, we will delve into the world of OPCs in India, exploring the legal framework, advantages, and limitations associated with this business entity. From understanding the eligibility criteria and steps involved in registering an OPC, to navigating the taxation and compliance requirements, this guide will equip you with all the essential knowledge you need to make an informed decision. So, whether you are a solopreneur with big dreams or an established professional looking to start your own venture, read on to discover how a One Person Company can be the perfect vehicle to transform your entrepreneurial aspirations into reality.

As per provisions of the companies act, 2013, A one person company director (OPC) is formed when one individual serves as both, the and shareholder of the business. The director and shareholder of one person company must be an Indian citizen and resident of India. Under the companies act 2013, companies in India are registered with the registrar of companies (ROC) and governed by ministry of corporate affairs (MCA). The registration process for one person company in India is quite simple, fast, and can be done online with a single form.

Advantages of registering as an OPC

Setting up a One Person Company (OPC) in India has several advantages that make it an attractive option for entrepreneurs. Firstly, unlike a sole proprietorship, an OPC provides limited liability protection to its owner, ensuring that their personal assets are separate from the business's liabilities. This feature shields the entrepreneur from potential financial risks and provides them with peace of mind.

Additionally, an OPC enjoys the benefit of perpetual succession, meaning that the company continues to exist even in the event of the owner's demise or incapacitation. This ensures the continuity of the business and offers a sense of security, especially for those looking to build a long-term venture.
One Person Company

From a tax perspective, OPCs are subject to lower tax rates compared to other business structures. They are taxed at the same rate as a private limited company, which may be advantageous for entrepreneurs seeking to optimize their tax liabilities.

Process of registering an OPC in India

The registration process can be summed up in simple steps as describe below:

Step 1: Obtain Digital signature certificate(DSC) – The first step toward registering one person company(OPC) is to acquire a digital signature certificate of the proposed director- DSC is issued by various government recognized certifying authorities and is used for verifying the authenticity of electronic document. All forms that need to be submitted online required the director DSC. The cost of acquiring a DSC depends on certifying agency that the applicants has applied for.

Step 2: Apply for Director Identification Number (DIN) – After obtaining DSC apply for director identification number (DIN) of the purpose director. DIN can be applied within SPIC+(INC-32) form for up to three directors. The documents required for obtaining DIN are identity proof of the proposed director such as:
  1. Voter Id/Aadhar card /Passport /Driving license
  2. Latest bank statement /Telephone bill/ Electricity or gas bill
  3. PAN card

Step 3: Application for company’s name Approval – The company’s name should be unique and distinct. The submitted name should not have a close resemblance with any company’s name it is always advisable to check from ministry of corporate affairs (MCA) portal for available names:

Step 4: Once the company’s name is approved by MCA, the following mandatory documents are to be drafted.
  1. The memorandum of Associated (MOA) – It is the foundation on which company is built. It defines rules, power, and objective of the company-
  2. The Articles of Association (AOA) – It is a set of rules and regulations relating to the management of the company.
  3. Nominee – While registering the company as one person company (OPC) applicant is required to mention a nominee. A nominee should be appointed his duty, Ownership of the company is easily transferred to the nominee. A nominee must right to choose or reject, to become sole owner of the company consent of nominee to act as nominee must be obtained in form INC -3 along with scanned copies of PAN card and Aadhar card of the nominee.
  4. Documents required for registered office address proof are –commercial electricity bill/sale deed of the office location for self-owned property. similarly rent agreement & NOC from the landlord for a rented property.

Step 5: By applying through SPICE+(INC-32) form applicant can avail of five different services namely: -
  1. Applicant for allotment of DIN (Director Identification Number)
  2. Reservation of company name
  3. Incorporation of a proposed company
  4. Application for allotment of PAN
  5. Application for allotment of TAN
Along with the form, the applicant is required to include all documents such as (the MOA, AOA, and DSC of the director. All details in the form are duly filled along with required documents and uploaded to the MCA portal for approval.

Step 6: Once the application form and document are verified by authorities, the registrar of companies (ROC) issues a certificate of incorporation along with PAN number and TAN, as allotted by income tax department.

Step 7: Applicant is required to open a current account in the name of the person company in order to regulate the transaction of OPC.

Eligibility criteria for becoming an OPC director

To become a director of an OPC in India, certain eligibility criteria must be met. Firstly, the individual must be an Indian citizen and at least 18 years old. Foreign nationals and non-resident Indians are not eligible to be directors of an OPC.

Additionally, an individual can be a director in only one OPC at a time. If they already hold directorship in another OPC, they must resign before becoming a director in a new OPC. This requirement ensures that the entrepreneur's focus remains on a single business entity, enhancing the efficiency and management of the company.

Documents required for OPC registration

To register an OPC in India, specific documents need to be submitted to the Registrar of Companies (ROC). These documents include:

1. Identity proof of the director, such as a PAN card or passport.
2. Address proof of the director, such as a voter ID card or Aadhaar card.
3. Proof of the registered office address of the OPC, such as a lease agreement or utility bill.
4. Memorandum of Association (MOA) and Articles of Association (AOA) of the company.
5. Consent from the nominee for their appointment as a director in case of the owner's incapacitation or demise.

These documents play a crucial role in establishing the authenticity and legality of the OPC, and therefore, must be accurate and up-to-date.

Rights and liabilities of an OPC director

As a director of an OPC in India, certain rights and liabilities come with the position. The director has the authority to make decisions on behalf of the company, subject to the limitations mentioned in the MOA and AOA. They have the power to enter into contracts, borrow funds, and manage the day-to-day operations of the OPC.

However, it is essential to note that the director of an OPC is personally liable for any non-compliance or legal issues faced by the company. This means that their personal assets could be at risk if the company fails to fulfill its obligations or violates any laws. Therefore, it is crucial for the director to adhere to all legal and compliance requirements to mitigate potential risks.

Compliance requirements for OPCs

Like any other business entity, OPCs in India must adhere to certain compliance requirements to ensure legal and operational efficiency. These requirements include:

1. Maintaining proper books of accounts and financial records.
2. Conducting regular board meetings and annual general meetings.
3. Filing annual returns and financial statements with the ROC.
4. Complying with tax regulations and filing income tax returns.
5. Updating the ROC about any changes in the company's structure or operations.
6. Adhering to the rules and regulations mentioned in the Companies Act, 2013.

By fulfilling these compliance requirements, an OPC can maintain transparency, accountability, and credibility, which are essential for its long-term success.

Taxation and financial considerations for OPCs

Taxation plays a significant role in the financial considerations of an OPC in India. OPCs are subject to the same tax rates as private limited companies, which are generally lower than the tax rates for individual taxpayers. This can result in significant tax savings for the entrepreneur.

Additionally, OPCs are eligible for various tax deductions and exemptions, such as the deduction of business expenses, depreciation on assets, and tax benefits for research and development activities. These incentives can contribute to the financial viability and growth of the OPC.

However, it is crucial for the director to maintain proper accounting records, file accurate tax returns, and comply with all tax obligations to avoid any penalties or legal issues.

Conversion of OPC to a private limited company

As an OPC grows and expands its operations, the entrepreneur may consider converting it into a private limited company. This conversion allows for the infusion of additional capital, the introduction of more shareholders, and increased opportunities for scaling the business.

The process of converting an OPC to a private limited company involves certain legal formalities, such as obtaining shareholder consent, altering the MOA and AOA, and filing the necessary documents with the ROC. It is advisable to seek professional guidance during this conversion process to ensure compliance with all legal requirements.

Comparison between OPC and other business structures

When considering the establishment of a business in India, entrepreneurs often evaluate various business structures to determine the most suitable option. While OPCs offer several advantages, it is essential to compare them with other business structures, such as sole proprietorships, partnerships, and private limited companies.

Sole proprietorships are the simplest form of business structure, requiring minimal legal formalities. However, they do not provide limited liability protection, and the owner is personally liable for all business debts and obligations.

Partnerships, on the other hand, involve two or more individuals sharing the responsibilities and profits of the business. While partnerships offer flexibility and shared decision-making, they also have unlimited liability, which can be a significant drawback.

Private limited companies, similar to OPCs, provide limited liability protection and separate the owner's personal assets from the company's liabilities. However, private limited companies require a minimum of two shareholders and two directors, making them more suitable for ventures with multiple stakeholders.

Success stories of OPCs in India

Over the years, several OPCs in India have achieved remarkable success and made a significant impact in their respective industries. One such success story is that of Razorpay, an online payment gateway company founded by Harshil Mathur. Through its innovative solutions and customer-centric approach, Razorpay has revolutionized the digital payments landscape in India.

Another inspiring example is that of Quick Heal Technologies, a leading cybersecurity company founded by Kailash Katkar. Quick Heal Technologies has become a trusted name in the industry, providing advanced security solutions to individuals and businesses.

These success stories demonstrate the immense potential and opportunities that OPCs can offer to entrepreneurs in India, irrespective of their industry or niche.


As an aspiring entrepreneur in India, exploring the concept of a One Person Company (OPC) can open doors to exciting possibilities. From limited liability protection and perpetual succession to favorable tax rates and compliance requirements, OPCs offer a range of benefits that can propel your entrepreneurial journey.
By understanding the eligibility criteria, registration process, compliance requirements, and financial considerations associated with OPCs, you can make an informed decision about the most suitable business structure for your venture.
Remember, starting a business requires careful planning, dedication, and perseverance. By equipping yourself with the knowledge and resources provided in this comprehensive guide, you can navigate the intricacies of establishing and managing an OPC in India successfully. So, take the leap, embrace your entrepreneurial aspirations, and embark on a journey towards building a thriving One Person Company.